Morality is simply too complex, too full of exceptions for these theories to ever fully work. Each of these requirement turn out to be, indirectly at least, also moral obligations for Kant, and are discussed in the Metaphysics of Morals and in Religion.
Other good features of human nature and the benefits of a good life, Kant pointed out, have value only under appropriate conditions, since they may be used either for good or for evil.
First, the Humanity Formula does not rule out using people as means to our ends. Courage may be laid aside if it requires injustice, and it is better not to be witty if it requires cruelty. So, the will operates according to a universal law, though not one authored by nature, but one of which I am the origin or author.
This is a claim he uses not only to distinguish assertoric from problematic imperatives, but also to argue for the imperfect duty of helping others G 4: So he concludes that "Duty is the necessity to act out of reverence for the law. It remains to be seen whether, on this complicated interpretation of Kant, it sufficiently allows for the possibility that one can knowingly and willingly do wrong if the will is practical reason and practical reason is, in part, the moral law.
Hence, determination by natural laws is conceptually incompatible with being free in a negative sense. Fourth, in classical views the distinction between moral and non-moral virtues is not particularly significant. Among the virtues Kant discusses are those of self-respect, honesty, thrift, self-improvement, beneficence, gratitude, sociability, and forgiveness.
Humanity is an objective end, because it is an end that every rational being must have. Hence, in employing a maxim, any human willing already embodies the form of means-end reasoning that calls for evaluation in terms of hypothetical imperatives.
In other words, it is because other people have universal reason and freedom that you should never treat them as merely means to your own ends, and it is that rationality which provides the criterion for evaluation found in the first expression of the CI. Insofar as we are rational, he says, we already necessarily will that all of our talents and abilities be developed.
In such cases of respecting you because of who or what you are, I am giving the proper regard to a certain fact about you, your being a Dean for instance. Reason has a lot of functions. Autonomy of the Will In fact, this final formula for the categorical imperative brings us back to the original concept of the will itself as that which is good without qualification.
Rationality, Kant thinks, can issue no imperative if the end is indeterminate, and happiness is an indeterminate end. Both strategies have faced textual and philosophical hurdles. Why is this so. The humanity in myself and others is also a positive end, though not in the first positive sense above, as something to be produced by my actions.
First, formulate a maxim that enshrines your reason for acting as you propose. Excerpts in Morality and the Good Life: It is this aspect of reason which is at the heart of the demand for impartiality and justice.
Guyer, by contrast, sees an argument for freedom as an end in itself Guyer To appeal to a posteriori considerations would thus result in a tainted conception of moral requirements. For instance, he holds that the lack of virtue is compatible with possessing a good will G 6: What is crucial in actions that express a good will is that in conforming to duty a perfectly virtuous person always would, and so ideally we should, recognize and be moved by the thought that our conformity is morally obligatory.
The Categorical Imperative is devised by Kant to provide a formulation by which we can apply our human reason to determine the right, the rational thing to do -- that is our duty.
Higher Education Comment Card Chapter Summary Consequentialist theories base moral right and wrong solely upon effects; deontological theories reject consequences as the basis of right and wrong and focus instead on our duty to act or not act in certain sorts of ways. For in order to do the right thing, it must at least be possible for my action to have some real effect in the world, yet I must perform it in complete independence from any external influence.
If this were the sort of respect Kant is counseling then clearly it may vary from person to person and is surely not what treating something as an end-in-itself requires. That one acts from duty, even repeatedly and reliably can thus be quite compatible with an absence of the moral strength to overcome contrary interests and desires.
Our knowledge and understanding of the empirical world, Kant argued, can only arise within the limits of our perceptual and cognitive powers.The Categorical Imperative is supposed to provide a way for us to evaluate moral actions and to make moral judgments. It is not a command to perform specific actions -- it does not say, "follow the 10 commandments", or "respect your elders".
How to Evaluate Kant's Ethical Theory By Meredyth Glass eHow Contributor Immanuel Kant's () ethical theory, the Categorical Imperative, states that moral acts are those done out of universally understood duty rather than out of concern for consequences.
Evaluation of his theory requires careful examination of each element. analysis of Kant's Categorical Imperative Essay Words | 9 Pages Analysis of Kant’s Categorical Imperative in Metaphysics Grounding for the metaphysics of morals is a foundation of Kant’s philosophy, in this book, Kant. KANT'S LYING PROMISE EXAMPLE - Willing a Universal Law Form.
Willing a Universal Law Form of the Categorical Imperative: "Act only according to that maxim whereby you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law.
(Kant in Solomon and Martin, and in Solomon and Greene, ).". outline and evaluate kants categorical imprative Essay Kants categorical imperative (25 marks) Kant’s categorical ethics is a deontological theory of ethics, this means that the actions are either intrinsically right or intrinsically wrong, this is due to absolute law; the outcome of the situation is not important to Kant’s theory even.
Chapter Summary. Chapter Outline plus Helpful Hints. Flashcards of Key Terms. Self-Quiz. Chapter Chapter Chapter The most basic formulation of the categorical imperative is Kant’s principle of universal law—which states that only a maxim that can be consistently universalized can qualify as a moral law.
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